EchoRand solves this issue of coordination through a cryptographic trick called a verifiable random function (VRF), which is a pseudo-random function introduced by Silvio Micali, Michael Rabin, and Salil Vadhan. Using this VRF, each user essentially participates in their own, individual lottery to determine if they were a "winner" for that given block, with the winning tickets eligible to participate in block production. The key innovation is that each user can do this by themselves, without any coordination necessary with the other users. However, all users can easily validate if a ticket is an unforgeable, cryptographically signed "winning ticket". In addition, each users likelihood of winning the lottery is proportional to their balance of tokens.